Modals 3

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Modals 3 – modals + have

Opening sentence”

May/might have

We use may have and might have to show 

that something has possibly happened now 

or happened at some time in the past:

I, you, we, they, he,she, it



(not) have

been –ing

been at home, on the phone etc.

wanted, worked, known etc.

Somebody ate all the cake at work. Who may have eaten all the cake? 

It may not have been eaten, it might be in the cupboard. 

It wasn’t me! It may have been Ryan. 

It might have been the cat! 

It may have been stolen. 

May/might have” geçmişe dair olasılık belirtmek için kullanılır.

May have and might have are often used interchangeably. However, if you’re referring to a possibility in the past but you know that it didn’t actually happen, it’s better to use might have:

She might have gone yesterday but she didn’t. (here, the event did not happen)

Gerçekleşmemiş bir ihtimalden bahsederken “may have” yerine “might have” kullanmak daha doğru olur.

Must have, can’t have

We use must/mustn’t have or can’t have to express assumption on a certain action that might have occurred in the past.

I, you, we, they, he,she, it

must (not)



been –ing

been at home, on the phone etc.

wanted, worked, known etc.

I can’t find my umbrella. I must have left it on the bus.

He is a good driver but he ran a red light. He mustn’t have seen it.

They are knocking on the door. No-one answers. They must have gone out.

Geçmişe dair varsayım yaparken “must/mustn’t have” veya “can’t have” kullanırız.

There is a difference in the meanings of must/mustn’t have and can’t have. 

We use must have to express that we feel sure that something was true.

We use can’t have to say that we believe something was impossible.


He wasn’t in the office. He can’t have eaten the cake.

He hasn’t called me back. He can’t have seen my missed call.

I just bought it for you yesterday. You can’t have lost it already!

Should have

We use should have to indicate obligation

for past actions.

I, you, we, they, he,she, it

should (not)


been –ing

been at home, on the phone etc.

wanted, worked, known etc.

They have left. You should have come earlier.

The party was fun. You should have come.

It’s nearly 10 o’clock. She should have arrived by now.

Yerine getirilmemiş zorunluk belirtmek için “should have” kullanılır.